Perfluorierte Verbindungen in archivierten Fischproben der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes
Theobald, Norbert; Schäfer, Sandra; Baaß, Anne-Christina
Hamburg: Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, 2011. - 67, FKZ 30102038
The aim of this study was an improvement of information about the spatial distribution and time trends of concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish from German rivers and coastal areas of the North and Baltic Seas. The investigations were carried out by retrospective monitoring of liver and muscle tissue of bream (Abramis brama) and eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled in the years 1995 to 2010 and archived by the German Environmental Specimen Bank (UBP). For this, a HPLC/MS/MS procedure was developed to analyse 10 PFCAs (C5 - C14), 5 PFSAs (C4, C6 - C8 and C10), and iso-PFOS (total of the branched isomers), as well as PFOSA (linear) and iso-PFOSA (total of the branched isomers).
The PFC burdens of liver and muscle samples from bream of the Rivers Rhine, Elbe, Danube, Saar and Saale were significantly higher than burdens of breams from Lake Belau (enclosed lake; reference area) and of eelpouts from marine coastal areas (North and Baltic Sea). In general, PFC concentrations in liver tissue were clearly higher than in muscle tissue.
PFOS - which is classified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic - was detected in all bream samples at quite high concentrations. In muscle tissue levels varied from 5 ng/g to 80 ng/g fresh weight (fwmuscle); in liver tissues values were in the range of 60 ng/g - 450 ng/g fwliver). In eelpout liver samples from the coastal stations concentrations ranged from 4 ng/g - 15 ng/g fwliver. Concentrations of PFOSA were one order of magnitude lower than those of PFOS (Bream from rivers: 0.2 ng/g - 6.5 ng/g fwmuscle and 0.8 ng/g - 28 ng/g fwliver; eelpout from marine coastal areas: 0.3 ng/g - 17 ng/g fwliver). At most sampling sites both compounds showed decreasing time trends in the investigation period.
The other perfluorinated sulphonates and all short-chain perfluorinated carboxylates (C5 - C9) were close or below the limit of quantification. Remarkably, perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) which generally is present in higher concentrations in surface waters was below the limit of determination in most fish samples.
Long-chain carboxylates (C10 - C14) were found in most bream samples in significant concentrations (0.1 ng/g - 3 ng/g fwmuscle and 0.2 ng/g - 16 ng/g fwliver). In liver samples from eelpouts concentrations up to 1 ng/g fwliver were analysed. Most of these series showed increasing time trends.