Glossary

0..9

1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane

A brominated flame retardant

2,2’,4,5’-TetraBDE (BDE-49)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3',4,4',5',6-HeptaBDE (BDE-183)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-Nonabromdiphenyl ether (NonaBDE)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6'-Octabromodiphenyl ether (OctaBDE) (BDE-196)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6,6'-NonaBDE (BDE-207)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3,3',4,4',6,6'-OctaBDE (BDE-197)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3,4,4',5'-Hexabromo diphenylether (HexaBDE) (BDE-138)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3,4,4',6,6'-HeptaBDE (BDE-184)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',3,4,4'-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (PentaBDE) (BDE-85)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,2',4,4',5,5'-HexaBDE (BDE-153)

PBDE congener with 6 bromine atoms. Component of technical pentaBDE

2,2',4,4',5,6'-HexaBDE (BDE-154)

PBDE congener with 6 bromine atoms. Minor component of technical pentaBDE

2,2',4,4',5-PentaBDE (BDE-99)

PBDE congener with 5 bromine atoms. Main component of technical pentaBDE

2,2',4,4',6-PentaBDE (BDE-100)

PBDE congener with 5 bromine atoms. Component of technical pentaBDE

2,2',4,4'-TetraBDE (BDE-47)

PBDE congener with 4 bromine atoms. Main component of technical pentaBDE

2,2',4-Tribromodiphenyl ether (TriBDE) (BDE-17)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,3',4',6-TetraBDE (BDE-71)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,3',4,4',6-PentaBDE (BDE-119)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,3',4,4'-TetraBDE (BDE-66)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,3,3',4,4',5',6-HeptaBDE (BDE-191)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,3,3',4,4',5-HexaBDE (BDE-156)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,3-Dibrompropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether

A brominated flame retardant

2,4,4'-TriBDE (BDE-28)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

2,4,6-Tribromoanisole

A brominated flame retardant

2,4,6-Tribromophenyl allyl ether

A brominated flame retardant

2-Bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether

A brominated flame retardant

2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate

A brominated flame retardant

2-Hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide

Oxidized metabolite of N-Ethyl-pyrrolidone. Metabolised by oxidation of 5-Hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone

2-Hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide

Oxidized metabolite of N-Methyl-pyrrolidone. Metabolised by oxidation of 5-Hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

24h-sampling urine

Particularly suitable matrix for human biomonitoring because chemicals and/or their metabolites excreted with urine have been in direct contact with the organism. Therefore, measurements in urine can give valid information regarding the internal human body burden.

2cx-MMHP

Mono(2-carboxymethyl-hexyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

2cx-MMHTP

1-mono-(2-carboxyl-methyl-hexyl) benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate is a metabolite of DEHTP

3,3',4,4',5-PentaBDE (BDE-126)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

3,3',4,4'- TetraBDE (BDE-77)

Specific congener of the group of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

4-Nonylphenol

Alkylphenol with a C9-alkyl-chain

4-tert-octylphenol

Alkylphenol with a C8-Alkyl-chain

5-Hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone

Oxidized metabolite of N-Ethyl-pyrrolidone

5-Hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

Oxidized metabolite of N-Methyl-pyrrolidone

5cx-MEPP

Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

5cx-MEPTP

1-mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxyl-pentyl) benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate is a metabolite of DEHTP

5OH-MEHP

Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

5OH-MEHTP

1-mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxy-hexyl) benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate is a metabolite of DEHTP

5oxo-MEHP

Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

5oxo-MEHTP

1-mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl) benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate is a metabolite of DEHTP

7-hydroxycitronellal

A fragrance often used in cosmetics

7-hydroxycitronellyl acid

Metabolite of 7-hydroxycitronellal

7cx-MiNP

Mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl)phthalate is a oxidised DiNP metabolite with functional carboxyl-group.

7OH-MiNP

Mono(4-methyl-7-hydroxyoctyl)phthalate is a oxidised DiNP metabolite with functional hydroxyl group.

7oxo-MiNP

Mono(4-methyl-7-oxo-octyl)phthalate is a oxidised DiNP metabolite with functional oxo group.

A

Abiotic factors

Physical and chemical parameters that influence an environment such as light, temperature, current, pressure, salinity, and pH

aerobic

Term for an oxygen-dependent lifestyle or oxygen-dependent chemical reactions

Agrarian Ecosystems

Agrarian ecosystems cover more than half the surface area of Germany and thus decisively shape the landscape.

AHTN

One of the world's most important fragrance among the chemical group of polycyclic musks

Algicide

also: Algaecide. Chemical agent used to kill algae or control their growth

Alkylphenol compounds

Class of non-ionic surfactants and their degradation products

Allergic skin reaction

Allergic reaction of the skin upon contact with certain substances like synthetic fragrances or metals

alpha-HBCD

Sum of (+)- und (-)-α-HBCD (pair of enantiomers). Minor component of technical HBCD (1–12%). In biota the levels of α-HBCD are normally much higher compared to those of β- und γ-HBCD.

alpha-HCH

The main constituent of technical HCH

anaerobic

Term for an oxygen-independent lifestyle or for chemical reactions that work only in the absence of oxygen

Anopheles

Genus of mosquito of which some species may transmit the tropical disease malaria

anti-Dechlorane Plus

A flame retardant

Archive

The long-term storage of environmental and human specimens is regarded as the main task of the German Environmental Specimen Bank: The Environmental Specimen Bank provides a continuous historical record of the state of the environment in Germany.

Arsenic

Ubiquitous toxic metalloid

B

Bactericide

Chemical substance intended to kill bacteria

Beech

As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.

Benzotriazole

UV stabilizers in plastics

Benzo[a]pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with five connected six-membered rings

Benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring with a single sulphur atom

Benzo[e]pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with five connected six-membered rings

Benzo[ghi]perylene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with six connected six-membered rings

Benzyl paraben

The application of benzyl paraben (BzP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

Benz[a]anthracene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with four connected six-membered rings

beta-HCH

Most persistent HCH-isomer with the highest potential for biomagnification

bioaccumulation

Increase in concentration of a substance in an organism

Bioaccumulation potential

Ability of a substance to enrich in organisms independent of the uptake route (surrounding medium, food)

bioavailability

Difference between the concentration of a substance an organism is exposed to and the amount which is ingested and absorbed

Biocide

Chemical agent capable to destroy living organisms

Biocides and plant protection products

Chemical agents against harmful organisms and for plant protection

biodiversity

Biological diversity

biomagnification

Increase in concentration of a substance in an organism through dietary uptake

Biomagnification potential

Ability of a substance to enrich in the food web

Biosphere Reserve

Extensive protected areas (natural and precious cultural landscapes) that have been recognized in the UNESCO Programme “Man and the Biosphere” (MAB) established in 1976

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate

A brominated flame retardant

Bisphenol A

Commercially important precursor of polymers like polycarbonates and epoxy resins

Blood plasma

Ideal matrix for most chemicals because it is in contact with the whole organism and in equilibrium with the organs and tissues in that chemicals are being accumulated

Blue mussel

One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea

Bream

Bioindicator in rivers and lakes

Brodifacoum

2nd generation anticoagulant

Bromadiolone

2nd generation anticoagulant

Butylated hydroxytoluene

Antioxidant used in food, cosmetics or packaging materials

Butylbenzyl phthalate

Only phthalate of commercial importance with differing side chains, one of them representing a benzyl group

C

Cadmium

Rare metal which in nature is mostly associated with zinc ores

Carbon content

Basic element for all living organisms and constituent of minerals, e.g. limestone

Carcinogenicity

Property of a substance or radiation to trigger or exacerbate cancer

Chlorohydrocarbons

Group of organic compounds with at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom

Chlorphacinone

1 st generation anticoagulant

Cholesterol

Essential steroid and indicator for disorders of the lipid metabolism and for the risk of vascular calcification, heart diseases and stroke

Chromium

Naturally occurring transition metal

Chronic toxicity

Toxic effects caused by repeated doses of or continous exposure to a substance over a long period of time

Chrysene + Triphenylene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with four connected six-membered rings

Cl10 Dechlorane Plus

A flame retardant

Cl11 Dechlorane Plus

A flame retardant

Cobalt

Naturally occurring transition metal

Collective, group

Here: group of test persons of one sampling site

Common bladder wrack

Common brown alga of the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Sea

Common spruce

A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.

Conductivity

Indicator for renal function

Congener

Chemical compounds with identical basic structure but different substitution patterns

Copper

Common metal widely used by humans

Coronene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with seven connected six-membered rings

Coumatetralyl

1 st generation anticoagulant

Creatinine

Break-down product of creatine phosphate in muscle and indicator for renal dysfunctions

cx-MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono-(7-carboxylate-4-methyl) heptylester is a secondary metabolite of DINCH®.

cx-MPHxP

Mono(propyl-6-carboxyhexyl) phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DPHP.

D

d13C

Measure for the enrichment of the stable carbon isotope 13C in the food web

d15N

Measure for the enrichment of the stable nitrogen isotope 15N in the food web

DDT and metabolites

Toxic and persistent organochloropesticide

DecaBDE (BDE-209)

Brominated flame retardant with BDE-209 as main component

Decabromodiphenylethane

A brominated flame retardant

Dechlorane 602

A flame retardant

Dechlorane 603

A flame retardant

Dechlorane 604

A flame retardant

Dechloranes

Chlorinated flame retardants

Degree of needle density

Sum of needle mass fractions of all age-groups in percent

Density (urine)

Indicator for renal function

Developmental toxicity

Potential of a substance to affect growth and development of organisms

Di(2-propylheptyl)phthalate (DPHP)

Analytically difficult to grasp

Di-n-butyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate

Di-n-octyl phthalate

Structural isomer of DEHP

Di-n-pentyl phthalate

A phthalate, which might soon be subject to more severe regulation

Diastereomers

Molecules with identical molecular formula but different structures that are, however, not mirror images of each other

Dichotomous

Divided into two parts, plant shots split into two branches

Dicyclohexyl phthalate

Phthalate with two cyclohexane rings as ester rests

Dieldrin

Very effective insecticide that was widely used as contact and stomach poison for soil insects like termites, grasshoppers and beetles and for textile pests until the early 1970s

Diethyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate

Diethylhexyl phthalate

Formerly the world's most important plasticizer among the chemical group of phthalates

Diethylhexylterephthalat (DEHTP)

Important substitute for phthalates

Difenacoum

2nd generation anticoagulant

Difethialone

2nd generation anticoagulant

Diisobutyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate whose use in packaging materials for food has been withdrawn voluntarily by the industry in 2007

Diisononyl phthalate

Mixture of phthalate diesters differing slightly in branching of the alcohol chains and main substitute of DEHP as plasticizer

Dimethyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate

Dioxins

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). Persistent and highly toxic organic pollutants

Dry weight

Reference value for contaminant contents, based on the weight of dried material

E

Earthworm (Aporrectodea longa)

As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).

Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris)

As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).

Ecosystems

The investigations are carried out in six ecosystem types.

Ecosystems close to conurbations

Ecosystems close to conurbations, or urban-industrial ecosystems, are areas of human activity where natural factors are in part significantly modified or annulled and, especially in built-up areas, only function in very fragmented ways.

Eelpout

As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.

Enantiomers

Molecule pair with identical molecular formula but laterally reversed steric configuration (mirror images of each other)

endocrine disrupting activity

Potential of a substance to act like a hormone and disturb the physiological equilibrium of the endocrine system of animals and humans

Endocrine disruptor

Natural or synthetic substance that acts like a hormone (hormonally active agent) and thereby disturbs the physiological balance of the endocrine system of animals and humans

Environmental quality standard (EQS)

Means the concentration of a particular pollutant or group of pollutants in water, sediment or biota which should not be exceeded in order to protect human health and the environment

EPA-List

16 EPA-PAH. List of 16 PAH which have been classified as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency and are commonly analysed in environmental samples as representatives of the whole group of PAH

Equivalent diameter

Measure for the size of irregular shaped particles which is, for instance, used in the determination of particle sizes in soils and sediments

Ethyl paraben

Ethyl paraben (EtP) is a preservative which is used in cosmetics and food. In the European Union (EU) methyl paraben and its natrium salt are listed in the regulation of food additives (Regulation (EU) No. 1129/2011) as E numbers E214 and E215.

EU-List

List generated by the EU and the Scientific Committee Food (SCF) comprising 15+1 priority PAH which are regarded as representative of the whole group of PAH

Eutrophication

Increase in concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem which leads to extensive growth of plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms like cyanobacteria

F

Feral pigeon

A pigeon species home in nearly every city.

Flame Retardants

Flame retardants reduce the flammability of objects

Flocoumafen

2nd generation anticoagulant

Fluoranthene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring

Forestry ecosystems

Almost a third of Germany is covered in forest, most of it under productive forestry management.

Fragrances

Fragrances are used in many different products

Fungicide

Chemical or biological agent intended to kill fungi or fungal spores or inhibit their growth

Furans

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Persistent and highly toxic organic pollutant

Further brominated flame retardants

Emerging and novel brominated flame retardants that do not belong to the main groups polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane

G

Glyphosate

Widespread herbicide whose risk potential for health and the environment is currently under discussion

H

Heptyl paraben

The application of heptyl paraben (HeP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

Herbicide

Chemical substance used to control unwanted plants (weeds)

Herring gull

Inshore, the herring gull mainly feeds from the sea: upon fish, mussels, and crabs.

Hexabromobenzene

A brominated flame retardant

Hexabromocyclododecane

Brominated flame retardant in polystyrene foams and other plastics

Hexachlorobenzene

Fungicide which was mainly used in seed treatment and as wood and timber preservative

Hexachlorocyclohexane

Several isomeric compounds among the group of chlorinated hydrocarbons

Hexamoll® DINCH®

Important substitute for phthalates

HHCB

The world's most important fragrance among the chemical group of polycyclic musks

homeostasis

Self-regulation

Homogenate

pooled sample consisting of combined cryogenic material of a specific matrix, e.g. whole organisms like earthworms or organs like fish livers which have been mechanically disrupted and finely ground at cryogenic temperature

Human samples

Human body fluids and hair

I

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with five six-membered rings and one five-membered ring

Inorganic species

Bonding form and oxidation state of elements, used mainly for metals and metalloids

Insecticide

Chemical agent intended to kill insects and their development stages

Iron

Naturally occurring transition metal

iso-butyl paraben

The application of iso-butyl paraben (iBuP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

iso-propyl paraben

The application of iso-propyl paraben (iPrP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

Isomers

Chemical compounds with identical molecular formula but different structure (constitutional- or structural isomers) or with different spatial positioning of the atoms (stereoisomers)

L

Lead

Naturally occurring poisonous heavy metal

Limnetic samples

Suspended particulate matter and animal samples from rivers and lakes

Lindane (gamma-HCH)

Highly effective insecticide that was banned from agricultural use in 2002 and restricted in pharmaceutical use in 2007

Lipid content

Parameter to normalise concentrations of lipophilic substances

Lipophilicity

Lipophil = “fat-loving”. Property of a substance to dissolve in fats, oils, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or to solve fats and oils itself

Lombardy poplar

A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.

M

Magnesium

Naturally occurring non-toxic alkaline earth metal

MAK

Maximum concentrations at the workplace (Maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentrationen)

Malaria

Tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The main symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of fever which may be fatal.

Manganese

Naturally occurring transition metal

Marine ecosystems

The structure and function of marine ecosystems are not the only factors to take into consideration when analysing marine organisms. All major changes at sea also induce changes in terrestrial ecosystems. The seas serve to regulate the weather, as a transport network, as a source for numerous food and mineral substances and as the final link in the chain of ecosystem loading.

Marine samples

Samples of marine-animals, sea weeds and seabirds

Matrix

Sample material, e.g. bream liver, bream muscle, soft bodies of mussels

MBzP

Mono-benzylphthalate is the primary metabolite of Butylbenzyl  phthalate (BBzP) resulting from elimination of the butyl group.

MCHP

Mono-cyclohexyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DCHP.

Median

In statistics the numerical value which halves a distribution of size ranked measured values

MEHP

Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is the primary metabolite of DEHP after cleavage of one alcohol group.

MEP

Monoethyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DEP.

Mercury

Naturally occurring highly toxic transition metal, which is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Metabolism

Metabolism of chemical substances by cells

Metabolite

Intermediate or product of metabolic processes

Metalloid, semi metal

Chemical elements which can not be clearly assigned to metals or non metals regarding their physical and chemical properties

Metals

Eighty percent of all elements on earth are metals

Methyl paraben

Methyl paraben (MEP) is a preservative which is used in cosmetics and food. In the European Union (EU) methyl paraben and its natrium salt are listed in the regulation of food additives (Regulation (EU) No. 1129/2011) as E numbers E218 and E219.

Methyl-triclosan

Product of methylation of triclosan

Methylisothiazolinone and Methylchloroisothiazolinone

Preservatives, that are used alone (MI) or in combination (MCI/MI)

Methylmercury

Organometallic compound that is naturally formed from inorganic mercury ions

MiBP

Mono-iso-butylphthalate is the primary metabolite of DiBP resulting from the elimination of one iso-butyl group.

MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono-4-methyloctyl ester is the primary metabolite of DINCH® after elimination of an ester rest.

MMP

Monomethyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DMP.

MnBP

Mono-n-butyl phthalate is the primary metabolite of DnBP resulting from the elimination of one butyl group.

MnOP

Mono-n-octyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DnOP.

MnPeP

Mono-n-pentyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DnPeP.

Molluscicide

Chemical agent used to kill molluscs, especially snails and slugs

Mutagenicity

Potential of a substance or radiation to alter the genetic material of cells and thus increase the frequency of mutations

N

n-butyl paraben

n-butyl paraben (nBuP) is used as preservative in cosmetics in the European Union (EU) with exception of products for small children.

N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidone

A versatile solvent classified as reproductive toxicant. Substitute of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)

N-Methyl malonamic acid

The common metabolite of Methylisothiazolinone (MI) and Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

A versatile solvent classified as reproductive toxicant

n-propyl paraben

n-propyl paraben (nPrP) is used as preservative in cosmetics in the European Union (EU) with exception of products for small children.

National Park

Clearly defined area protected against human interventions and environmental pollution by precautionary measures. A greater part of the area must meet the requirements of a nature reserve.

Nearly natural terrestrial ecosystems

Nearly natural ecosystems are exceptional in that they have preserved their ancient structure and function without significant human manipulation.

Nickel

Naturally occurring transition metal

Nonmetals

Only eighteen elements in the periodic table

NP Harz

Germany's largest forest national park

O

Octachlorostyrene

Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chlorinated organochlorine compound

OH-MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl)octyl ester is a secondary metabolite of DINCH®.

OH-MPHP

Mono(propyl-6-hydroxyheptyl) phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DPHP.

Organic layer/root network

The organic layer respectively the root network at urban green spaces is an important specimen because both are in direct contact with the atmosphere and thus with air pollutants and substances which are directly applied to the soil. Furthermore, substances which have been deposited on the vegetation enter the organic layer through litter.

Organo mercury compounds

Organic substances with at least one mercury atom

Organochloro pesticides

Organochloro hydrocarbons with insecticidal properties

Organometallic compounds

Organic substances with at least one metall atom

Organotin compounds

Class of organometallic compounds of tin

oxo-MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono(oxo-isononyl) ester is a secondary metabolite of DINCH®.

Oxo-MPHP

Mono(propyl-6-oxo-heptyl) phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DPHP.

P

p,p'-DDD

DDD is a metabolite of DDT with insecticidal properties. It is suspected to be carcinogenic and to act as endocrine disruptor.

p,p'-DDE

DDE is the main metabolite of DDT. It is even more persistent than the parent compound and is strongly accumulated by organisms. It is suspected to be carcinogenic, mutagenic and to act as endocrine disruptor.

Parabens

Preservatives in food and cosmetics

Parameter

Biometric and anamnestic parameters and substances or groups of substances that describe either the basic physiological state or toxic or carcinogenic conditions.

Particle-size distribution

Important parameter for the characterisation of soils

PCB 101

PCB 101 is a low chlorinated, relatively volatile PCB. Together with other low chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB 28 and PCB 52) it stands for acute contamination of the ambient air. It degrades rather fast and accumulation in organisms is lower compared to higher chlorinated congeners.

PCB 105

PCB 105 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.00003

PCB 114

PCB 114 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.00003

PCB 118

PCB 118 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans. They are highly toxic. Technical mixtures of PCB contain only trace amounts of dioxin-like PCB. They can occur as by-products of incineration processes.

PCB 123

PCB 123 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.00003

PCB 126

PCB 126 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.1

PCB 138

PCB 138 is a higher chlorinated PCB. It is hardly degradable and accumulates strongly in organisms and the food web. Together with other high chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB 153 and PCB 180) it stands for long-term contamination mainly through food.

PCB 153

PCB 153 is a higher chlorinated PCB. It is hardly degradable and accumulates strongly in organisms and the food web. Together with other high chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB 138 and PCB 180) it stands for long-term contamination mainly through food.

PCB 156

PCB 156 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.00003

PCB 157

PCB 157 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.00003

PCB 167

PCB 167 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.00003

PCB 169

PCB 169 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.03

PCB 189

PCB 189 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.00003

PCB 77

PCB 77 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.0001

PCB 81

PCB 81 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs, also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans.Toxic equivalency factor according to WHO(2005) (WHO-TEF(2005)): 0.0003

PCB180

PCB 180 is a higher chlorinated PCB. It is hardly degradable and accumulates strongly in organisms and the food web. Together with other high chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB 138 and PCB 153) it stands for long-term contamination mainly through food.

Pentabromoethylbenzene

A brominated flame retardant

Pentabromotoluene

A brominated flame retardant

Pentachlorophenol

Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon and effective biocide

Pentyl paraben

The application of pentyl paraben (PeP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds

Organic compounds which are fully (per-) or partially (poly-) fluorinated

Perchlorate

Salts of perchloric acid

Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 4 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group; substitute for PFOS in many applications

Perfluorobutanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 4 C-atoms

Perfluorodecanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 10 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

Perfluorodecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 10 C-atoms

Perfluorododecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 12 C-atoms

Perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 7 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

Perfluoroheptanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 7 C-atoms

Perfluorohexanesulfonate

Fluorocarbon with 6 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

Perfluorohexanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 6 C-atoms

Perfluorononanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 9 C-atoms

Perfluorooctanesulfonamide

Fluorocarbon with 8 C-atoms and one sulfonamide group

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 8 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

Perfluorooctanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 8 C-atoms

Perfluoropentanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 5 C-atoms

Perfluorotetradecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 14 C-atoms

Perfluorotridecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 13 C-atoms

Perfluoroundecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 11 C-atoms

Persistence

Property of substances to remain in the environment over long time without being altered by physical, chemical or biological processes

pH-value

pH-value as measure for the alkalinity or acidity of a medium

pH-value (potassium chloride)

The pH-value in a suspension of sample material and a diluted potassium solution corresponds to the potential acidity.

pH-value (water)

The pH in a water suspension is a measure for the actual acidity of the sample. It is related to the concentration of free hydrogen ions (H+) in the suspension.

Phenanthrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three connected six-membered rings

Phosphorus

Common element in the environment and constituent of many minerals

Phthalates and substitutes

General-purpose plasticizers for PVC and other polymers

Pine

A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

Brominated organic compounds

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Persistent and toxic chlorinated compounds

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuranes (PCDDs/PCDFs, also PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are in short named "dioxins" or "dioxin" in the strict sense of this term.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Group of organic compounds with at least three condensed six-membered rings

Polycyclic musks

Class of synthetic fragrances

Potassium

Naturally occurring alkali metal

Propiconazole

Fungicide used as biocide, e.g. in wood preservation, and as plant protection product.

Pubic hair

Ideal matrix for the detection of internal exposure to methylmercury.

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride. Thermoplastic polymer used, for instance, in flooring, upholstery, tubes, and electrical cable insulation

Pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with four connected six-membered rings

R

Reproductive toxicity

Potential of a substance or radiation to affect fertility and/or embryonic growth

Riverine ecosystems

Riverine ecosystems can be considered as the final link in the functional structure of the terrestrial environment, as they function as a sink and a vehicle for discharges from the mainland, which they pass on to the marine ecosystems.

Rodenticide

Chemical agent intended to kill rodents like rats and mice

Rodenticides

Control agents against mice, rats and other rodents

Roe deer, one-year-old

The roe deer is the most common of the larger herbivores (first order-consumer) to be found in the wild in Europe.

RoHS

Restriction of Hazardous Substances. EU-Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronical equipment

S

Saliva

Via element analysis in saliva release of alloy components of dental (prothesis) materials can be assessed.

Sampling areas

The sampling areas have been selected to represent adequately the major types of ecosystems in Germany and taking into account the varying intensities of anthropogenic impact and land use.

Scalp hair

Ideal matrix for the detection of internal exposure to methylmercury.

Selenium

Relatively rare element that naturally occurs both in its elemental form and in many minerals

Soil

Soil is livelihood and biosphere for humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. All the substances brought in are transported, transformed and/or accumulated in the soil.

Specimen types

The specimen types have been selected in such a way as to permit load observations within both a spatial and a time framework, thereby providing optimum information about overall conditions in the various sampling areas.

Stable Isotopes

Atoms of one element with different weights

Standard deviation

Measure of variation around the mean value

Standard operating procedures

To achieve a high degree of quality assurance, every step in the procedure from sampling through transport, preparation and analysis of the specimen to long-term storage is the subject of binding Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for each type of specimen.

Stockholm Convention

POP-(Persistent Organic Pollutant) Convention. International agreement on the ban and restriction of certain persistent organic pollutants

Strontium

Alkaline earth metal with high reactivity that occurs naturally only in compounds with other elements

Students

Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

Subsoil

The subsoil (B horizon) is often enriched with clay, minerals or organic matter and is therefore also referred to as illuvial horizon. It is the main area of mineralisation. In many soil types the B horizon functions as water reservoir where water soluble pollutants accumulate. Furthermore, the channels of many burrowing soil organisms penetrate the B horizon thus facilitating the contaminant dissemination. The B horizon plays a major role in the cycle of matter because the roots of many plants penetrate through the B horizon and are exposed to the accumulated contaminants. In the subsoil, the samples are taken in the first subsoil horizon of up to 40 cm depth.

Sulfur

Ubiquitous element which naturally occurs in its elementary form as well as in sulfide- and sulfate minerals

Sum of PBDE congeners (EQS compliant)

According to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), brominated diphenyl ethers are subject to an environmental quality standard (EQS) of 0.0085 ng/g in biota. The biota EQS refers to fish and applies to the sum of the congeners BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153 and BDE-154.

Suspended particulate matter

Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase

syn-Dechlorane Plus

A flame retardant

T

Tebuconazole

Fungicide used in plant protection products as well as in biocidal products.

Teratogenicity

Potential of a substance or radiation to affect the growth and development of an embryo or fetus

Terrestrial samples

Samples of animals living on land and plants growing on land and as well as soil

Thallium

Rare element which occurs naturally as trace element in many minerals

Thallus

Vegetation tissue of algae (not differentiated in stem, leave and root

Thousand needle weight

Weight of 1.000 needles of a tree in gram

Tidal creek or tideway

In- and outlet systems for the tidal current in the mudflat with a relatively stable course despite the  regular flooding

Topsoil

The topsoil (A horizon) is the upper layer of the mineral soil body with high biological activity. It is mostly darker in colour and contains more organic matter than the deeper layer. The topsoil is of special importance in the circulation of contaminants because it is the main root space of plants and the habitat of the majority of soil organism.

Total Bisphenol A

Total Bisphenol A is the sum of unconjugated and conjugated BPA.

Total Carbon (TC)

The total carbon content of a sample comprises the carbon of all inorganic and organic compounds and free carbon.

Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC)

The TIC of a sample is a measure for the inorganic carbon compounds like carbon dioxide, carbonates and bicarbonates.

Total Organic Carbon (TOC)

The TOC content in a sample is a measure for the organic matter which comprises all living and dead biomass.

Total protein

Indicator for the protein metabolism

Total volume (urine)

Essential additional parameter for the determination and assessment of renal function

toxicity

toxicity = poisonousness

Transect

Section of a landscape or sampling area defined according to certain criteria

Tributyltin

Organometallic compound of tin with three butyl groups

Triclosan

Chlorinated aromatic biocide

Triglycerides

Storage form of fatty acids and indicator for several diseases and the risk of thrombosis and vascular calcification

Triphenyltin

Organometallic compound of tin with three phenyl groups

Tsetse fly

Genus of flies and vector of the tropical human sleeping sickness and the animal trypanosomiasis (Nagana)

Tumour-promoting property

Potential of a substance to accelerate tumour growth

U

UV-234

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-320

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-326

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-327

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-328

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-329

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-350

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-360

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-928

UV stabilizer in plastics

UV-Filter and antioxidants

Proctection for humans and products

V

Viscosity

Thickness of fluids, suspensions and liquefied material. Measure for the inner resistance to deformation

W

Wafarin

1st generation anticoagulant

water catchment area

Clearly definable geographical entity in a landscape which allows a quantification of material transport and conversion (input and output)

Water content

Parameter to calculate wet weight from dry weight and vice versa

Wet weight

Reference value for contaminant contents, based on  weight of fresh, undried material.
Synonym: fresh weight

WHO(2005)-PCB TEQ excl. LOQ

Sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), expressed as WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) using the WHO-TEFs(2005), calculation by using lowerbound concentrations: lowerbound concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the values of the different congeners below the limit of quantification (LOQ) are zero.

WHO(2005)-PCB TEQ incl. LOQ

Sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), expressed as WHO toxic equivalent using the WHO-TEFs(2005), calculation by using upperbound concentrations: upperbound concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the values of the different congeners below the limit of quantification (LOQ) are equal to the limit of quantification.

WHO(2005)-PCDD/F+PCB-TEQ excl. LOQ

Sum of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), expressed as WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) using the WHO-TEFs(2005), calculation by using lowerbound concentrations: lowerbound concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the values of the different congeners below the limit of quantification (LOQ) are zero.

WHO(2005)-PCDD/F+PCB-TEQ incl. LOQ

Sum of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), expressed as WHO toxic equivalent using the WHO-TEFs(2005), calculation by using upperbound concentrations: upperbound concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the values of the different congeners below the limit of quantification (LOQ) are equal to the limit of quantification.

WHO(2005)-PCDD/F-TEQ excl. LOQ

Sum of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) expressed as WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) using the WHO-TEFs(2005), calculation by using lowerbound concentrations: lowerbound concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the values of the different congeners below the limit of quantification (LOQ) are zero.

WHO(2005)-PCDD/F-TEQ incl. LOQ

Sum of dioxins (PCDD/Fs), expressed as WHO toxic equivalent using the WHO-TEFs(2005), calculation by using upperbound concentrations: upperbound concentrations are calculated on the assumption that all the values of the different congeners below the limit of quantification (LOQ) are equal to the limit of quantification.

Whole blood

Ideal matrix for most chemicals because it is in contact with the whole organism and in equilibrium with the organs and tissues in those chemicals are being accumulated.

Z

Zebra mussel

Common mussel species as invasive animal in rivers and lakes with high information level for water pollution

Zinc

Rather common element which occurs mainly in ores