Flame Retardants

Flame retardants reduce the flammability of objects

Flame retardants are substances designed to restrict, slow or prevent the further development if ignition or spread of fires. They are used preventively wherever potential ignition sources and combustible materials are located, such as in electronics, computers, vehicles, building and insulation materials, upholstered furniture and carpets.

According to the chemical composition, the group of flame retardants is classified into halogenated flame retardants (HFR), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFR), nitrogen-based flame retardants and inorganic flame retardants. HFR include brominated flame retardants (BFR) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and chlorinated flame retardants (CFR) such as Mirex and Dechlorane Plus.

Sub-groups

Specimen

  • Common mussel species as invasive animal in rivers and lakes with high information level for water pollution
  • Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
  • Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase
  • One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
  • As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.
  • Inshore, the herring gull mainly feeds from the sea: upon fish, mussels, and crabs.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.
  • As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.
  • The roe deer is the most common of the larger herbivores (first order-consumer) to be found in the wild in Europe.
  • As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).
  • As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).
  • Soil is livelihood and biosphere for humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. All the substances brought in are transported, transformed and/or accumulated in the soil.

Sampling area

Sampling period

1985 - 2019