Sampling sites (humans)

4 university cities as sampling areas.

Sampling in the human field is not designed to mirror the sampling areas selected for environmental specimens on the basis of ecosystems, because although human beings today are still part of their environment they are difficult to attribute to representative ecosystems due to their mobility, widely varying conditions at home and at work, and differentiated patterns of food distribution and consumption.

Clearly, therefore, only the selected sampling sites are of any regional relevance.

With individuals and groups moving home in a mobile society, almost the entire country is represented, although there has been a preference for covering rural and industrial areas.


Münster Important university city, as well as service and administration centre with about 270,000 inhabitants and 48,000 students in Northrhine-Westphalia.
Greifswald Small university town with about 54,000 inhabitants and about 12,000 students in a sparsely populated area of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
Halle/Saale Old industrial centre of the former GDR in Saxony-Anhalt with considerable structural changes since 1990, and about 230,000 inhabitants and 20,000 students in Saxony-Anhalt.
Ulm Small university city in southern Germany at the river Danube with about 120,000 inhabitants.


Students Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.


Metals Eighty percent of all elements on earth are metals
Nonmetals Only eighteen elements in the periodic table
Chlorohydrocarbons Group of organic compounds with at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom
Phthalates and substitutes General-purpose plasticizers for PVC and other polymers
Bisphenol A Commercially important precursor of polymers like polycarbonates and epoxy resins
Biocides and plant protection products Chemical agents against harmful organisms and for plant protection
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds Organic compounds which are fully (per-) or partially (poly-) fluorinated
Parabens Preservatives in food and cosmetics
UV-Filter and antioxidants Proctection for humans and products
Fragrances Fragrances are used in many different products
Supplementary parameters Additional information for the interpretation of contamination data

Sampling period

1981 - 2019