Phenanthrene

PHEN, phenanthrin; formula: C14H10; CAS Registry Number: 85-01-8
Structure of phenanthrene
Source: PubChem
Identifier: CID 995
URL: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/995#section=2D-Structure

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three connected six-membered rings

Phenanthrene is a rather common PAH. It occurs naturally in fossil fuels and is a product of incomplete combustion. Furthermore, it is found naturally as Ravatite, a rare mineral.
The primary emission sources of phenanthrene are the combustion of fossil fuels, traffic and exhausts from industry. It can be detected, e.g. in tobacco smoke, smoked, charbroiled and contaminated foods and drinking water.

For industrial purposes phenanthrene is derived from coal tar. It is used in the production of dyes, drugs, pesticides and explosives.

Phenanthrene is relatively persistent in the environment. It is toxic to aquatic organisms. Furthermore, it is bioaccumulated.

Phenanthrene is one of 16 PAHs which were included in the list of Priority Pollutants by the U.S. EPA (EPA-list).

Specimen

  • Common mussel species as invasive animal in rivers and lakes with high information level for water pollution
  • Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase
  • One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.
  • As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.
  • As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).
  • As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).
  • Soil is livelihood and biosphere for humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. All the substances brought in are transported, transformed and/or accumulated in the soil.

Sampling area

Sampling period

1985 - 2019

Extended information

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