Density (urine)

Indicator for renal function

TThe density of urine is an important parameter which decribes the dilution of the urine. It is directly correlated to the total excretion volume of the urine. The higher the dilution (e.g. through a large total volume) the lower the density. The main influencing factors are dietary uptake of fluid and loss of fluid, e.g. by sweating. By contrast, the amount of molecules which are excreted via urine is normally relatively constant and has therefore only minor influence on the urine density.
In the kidney the urine is concentrated by water retention, i.e. the density increases. This process is regulated by hormones.
A failing ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine may indicate impaired renal functioning and/or hormone disorders.

The reference range for the density of 24h sampling urine is 1020 - 1030 g/L.


  • Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

Sampling area

Sampling period

1986 - 2019

Extended information


  • Labor und Diagnose - Indikation und Bewertung von Laborbefunden für die medizinische Diagnostik
    Thomas, Lothar
    Frankfurt am Main: Th-Books Verlag, 2005. 2016, 2005