Part I. A temporal study of PFCAs and its precursors in human plasma from two German cities 1982 - 2009
Yeung, Leo Wai-Yin; Robinson, Shona; Koschorreck, Jan; Mabury, Scott Andrew
Environmental Science & Technology 47 (2013), 8, 3865-3874
A total of 420 human plasma samples from two cities (Halle and Münster, Germany), collected between 1982 and 2009, were analyzed for a suite of PFCAs (C6-C12) and selected PFCA precursors (4:2-, 4:2/6:2-, 6:2-, 6:2/8:2-, 8:2-, 8:2/10:2- and 10:2 diPAPs). PFCAs (C7 - C11, 13) were detected in over 80% of the samples (<0.005 - 39.4 ng/mL) while C12 PFCA was detected in fewer than 10% of the samples. In a range of 10-46% of the samples, 4:2-, 4:2/6:2-, 6:2, and 8:2- diPAPs were identified at concentrations of <0.0002 ng/mL to 0.687 ng/mL; fewer than 10% of the samples had detectable 10:2 diPAP. Temporal trends (2000-2009) showed increasing concentrations of PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, whereas PFOA concentrations were decreasing. Calculated population halving time for PFOA varied between 8.2 - 14.5 years which contrasts to the generally accepted value of 3.8 years. This suggests an ongoing or additional exposure to PFOA or one of its precursor compounds. DiPAPs, known to metabolize rapidly to PFCAs, were detected in a significant number of samples and at concentrations that have not declined significantly over the past half-decade. The evidence suggests they have contributed to the continued presence of the longer chain PFCAs and perhaps contribute to the slow decline of PFOA.
To publication part II: Part II. A temporal study of PFOS and its precursors in human plasma from two German cities 1982 - 2009