Phenol-Benzotriazole in Proben der Umweltprobenbank - Screening und Zeitreihen
Wick, Arne; Jacobs, Björn; Ternes, Thomas A.
Koblenz: Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde, 2016. - 61
Occurrence of phenolic benzotriazoles in samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank - Screening and time trend monitoring
Phenolic benzotriazoles are widely applied as UV stabilizers in plastics and to some extent also in cosmetics and sun screens. Many phenolic benzotriazoles are highly lipophilic compounds and exhibit a high sorption and bioaccumulation potential. This study describes for the first time the occurrence of nine different phenolic benzotriazoles (UV-326, UV-320, UV-329, UV-350, UV-328, UV-327, UV-928, UV-234 and UV-360) in sediment, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bream liver samples of five German rivers. All investigated BUVs were detected in sediments and SPM at concentrations in the low ng/g dry weight (dw) range. The so far rarely analyzed compound UV-360 was one of the predominant phenolic benzotriazoles in sediments and SPM, reaching maximum concentrations of about 60 ng/g dw. Five BUVs (UV-320, UV-350, UV-328, UV-327 and UV-234) were also confirmed to bioaccumulate in bream liver. In contrast to sediment and SPM, UV-360 was not detectable and the maximum concentration in bream liver was determined for UV-327 (65 ng/g dw). A retrospective time trend analysis using samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank revealed increasing contamination levels of UV-329 in SPM from the river Rhine (sampling location Koblenz, time period 2005 to 2013) as well as in SPM from the river Saar (sampling location Rehlingen, time period 2006-2013). In contrast, a considerable decrease of the concentrations of UV-320 and UV-350 was observed. At one site (river Rhine, Koblenz) time trends of BUV concentrations were also investigated in bream liver (1995-2013) and supported a considerably reduced exposure to UV-350. A first assessment of the environmental fate in aquatic systems by degradation experiments according to OECD 308 indicated that phenolic benzotriazoles are highly persistent compounds which are mainly sorbed to sediments and SPM.