Time Patterns in Internal Human Exposure Data to Bisphenols, Phthalates, DINCH, Organophosphate Flame Retardants, Cadmium and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Europe

2023, Journals

Rodriguez Martin, L.; Gilles, L.; Helte, E.; Akesson, A.; Tagt, J.; Covaci, A.; Sakhi, A. K.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, A.; Katsonouri, A.; Andersson, A. M.; Gutleb, A. C.; Janasik, B.; Appenzeller, B.; Gabriel, C.; Thomsen, C.; Mazej, D.; Sarigiannis, D.; Anastasi, E.; Barbone, F.; Tolonen, H.; Frederiksen, H.; Klanova, J.; Koponen, J.; Tratnik, J. S.; Pack, K.; Gudrun, K.; Olafsdottir, K.; Knudsen, L. E.; Rambaud, L.; Strumylaite, L.; Murinova, L. P.; Fabelova, L.; Riou, M.; Berglund, M.; Szabados, M.; Imboden, M.; Laeremans, M.; Estokova, M.; Janev Holcer, N.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Vodrazkova, N.; Vogel, N.; Piler, P.; Schmidt, P.; Lange, R.; Namorado, S.; Kozepesy, S.; Szigeti, T.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Weber, T.; Jensen, T. K.; Rosolen, V.; Puklova, V.; Wasowicz, W.; Sepai, O.; Stewart, L.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Esteban-Lopez, M.; Castano, A.; Bessems, J.; Schoeters, G.; Govarts, E.
Toxics 11 (2023); online: 28 September 2023


Human biomonitoring (HBM) data in Europe are often fragmented and collected in different EU countries and sampling periods. Exposure levels for children and adult women in Europe were evaluated over time. For the period 2000-2010, literature and aggregated data were collected in a harmonized way across studies. Between 2011-2012, biobanked samples from the DEMOCOPHES project were used. For 2014-2021, HBM data were generated within the HBM4EU Aligned Studies. Time patterns on internal exposure were evaluated visually and statistically using the 50th and 90th percentiles (P50/P90) for phthalates/DINCH and organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in children (5-12 years), and cadmium, bisphenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in women (24-52 years).

Restricted phthalate metabolites show decreasing patterns for children. Phthalate substitute, DINCH, shows a non-significant increasing pattern. For OPFRs, no trends were statistically significant. For women, BPA shows a clear decreasing pattern, while substitutes BPF and BPS show an increasing pattern coinciding with the BPA restrictions introduced. No clear patterns are observed for PAHs or cadmium. Although the causal relations were not studied as such, exposure levels to chemicals restricted at EU level visually decreased, while the levels for some of their substitutes increased. The results support policy efficacy monitoring and the policy-supportive role played by HBM.

doi: 10.3390/toxics11100819