Sulfur in pine shoots from the Dübener Heide

Decreasing sulfur levels since the German re-unification

Sulfur is an essential element for all organisms. It is not bioaccumulated. In contaminated environments, however, sulfur levels in plants may be elevated.

In spruce shoots from the Dueben Heath (sampling site Dübener Heide Mitte) sulfur levels have decreased significantly since the early 1990s. This is probably the result of improved emission regulations at the nearby industrial area Bitterfeld. Another likely reason may be reduced sulfur contents in fuels.

Decreasing sulfur levels since the German re-unification
Fig. 1: Sulfur in one-year-shoots of pine from the sampling site Dübener Heide Mitte


Updated at: 2022-01-11

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  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.


  • Ubiquitous element which naturally occurs in its elementary form as well as in sulfide- and sulfate minerals

Sampling area